Schaffner Francis

Dr Francis Schaffner, French, PhD: medical and veterinary entomologist. He has more than 24 years of experience in surveillance, control, taxonomy, ecology of insect vectors and epidemiology of human and animal vector-borne diseases. He was during 8 years co-ordinator for the detection and control programme of invasive mosquitoes, firstly Ae albopictus, throughout France, and he participated actively to the risk assessment of West Nile and chikungunya viruses for metropolitan France. He was also involved in the former EU-funded project EDEN, initially as a scientific referent for a full partner (EID Méditerranée, France) and since his relocation to Zurich (end of 2006) as invited expert in entomology. Beside his main activity as leader of a research team on arachno-entomology, he is working as consultant within the Avia-GIS company and the Euro-AEGIS group, major activities including training and capacity building, as well as providing guidance and advice for risk assessment and management of vector-borne diseases. Thus, he has lead in 2008 the TigerMaps project for ECDC (Development of Ae. albopictus risk maps) and is member of the recently created consortium who is developing for ECDC the VBORNET European Network of entomological and public health specialists on vector borne diseases. He is active in several international scientific societies and co-leader of the European Mosquito Control Association (EMCA) Ae. albopictus working group, which allows him to develop numerous contacts throughout Europe. He published more than 40 articles in peer-reviewed journals and 25 other papers, booklets, book chapters or CD-ROM, of which most are closely related to the EDENEXT project.


Kaufmann, C., D. Ziegler, F. Schaffner, S. Carpenter, V. Pflüger & A. Mathis – Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for characterization of Culicoides nubeculosus biting midges. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, in press Porretta, D., D. Canestrelli, S. Urbanelli, R. Bellini, F. Schaffner, D. Petric & G. Nascetti – Southern crossroads of the Western Palaeartic during the Late Pleistocene and their imprints on current patterns of  genetic diversity: insights from the mosquito Aedes caspius. Journal of Biogeography, 2011, 38(1): 20-30, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02385.x

Schaffner, F., P. Gatt, S. Mall, M. Maroli, G. Spiteri, T. Melillo & H. Zeller – Mosquitoes in Malta: Preliminary entomological investigation and risk assessment for vector-borne diseases. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Malta, 2010, 3: 41-54 Scholte, E.-J., W. Den Hartog, M. Dik, B. Schoelitsz, M. Brooks, F. Schaffner, R. Foussadier, M. Braks & J. Beeuwkes – Introduction and control of three invasive mosquito species in the Netherlands, July-October 2010. EuroSurveillance, 2010, 15(45): 4pp. pii=19710. Available online:

Gatt, P., F. Schaffner & L.F. Cassar – Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malta – the first winter. European Mosquito Bulletin, 2010, 28: 225-229

cholte, E.-J., M. Braks & F. Schaffner – Aircraft-mediated transport of Culex quinquefasciatus. A case report. European Mosquito Bulletin, 2010, 28: 208-212 Roggero, C., F. Schaffner, G. Bächli, A. Mathis & M. Schnyder – Survey of Phorticadrosophilid flies within and outside of a recently identified transmission area of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in Switzerland. Veterinary Parasitology, 2010, 171: 58-67

Kaufmann, C., F. Schaffner & A. Mathis – Monitoring von Gnitzen (Culicoides spp.), den potentiellen Vektoren des Blauzungen-krankheitsvirus‘, in den 12 Klimaregionen der Schweiz. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 2009, 151(5):  205-213, Doi: 10.1024/0036-7281.151.5.205

Tschuor, A.C., C. Kaufmann, F. Schaffner & A. Mathis – Vorkommen von Gnitzen (Culicoides spp.) auf drei Höhenstufen in einer alpinen Region der Schweiz. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 2009, 151(5): 215– 221, Doi:  10.1024/0036-7281.151.5.215

Versteirt, V., F. Schaffner, C. Garros, W. Dekoninck, M. Coosemans & V. Van Bortel – Introduction and establishment of the exotic mosquito species Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium. Journal of Medical Entomology, 2009, 46(6): 1464-1467

Schaffner, F., C. Kaufmann, D. Hegglin & A. Mathis – The invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus in Central Europe. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 2009, 23: 448-451

Gatt, P., J.C. Deeming & F. Schaffner – First record of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malta. European Mosquito Bulletin, 2009, 27: 56-64

Delaunay, P., C. Jeannin, F. Schaffner & P. Marty – Actualités 2008 sur la présence du moustique tigre Aedes albopictus en France métropolitaine. Archives de Pédiatrie, 2009, 16, supp. 2: S66-S71

Armengaud, A., F. Legros, E. D’Ortenzio, I. Quatresous, H. Barre, S. Houze, P. Valayer, Y. Fanton & F. Schaffner – A case of autochthonous Plasmodium vivax malaria, Corsica, August 2006. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2008, 6: 36-40, doi:10.1016/ j.tmaid.2007.09.042

Balenghien, T., M. Vazeille, M. Grandadam, F. Schaffner, H. Zeller, P. Reiter, P. Sabatier, F. Fouque & D.J. Bicout – Vector Competence of Some French Culex and Aedes Mosquitoes for West Nile Virus. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 2008, 8(5): 589-596, doi:10.1089/vbz.2007.0266

Moutailler, S., G. Krida, F. Schaffner, M. Vazeille & A.-B. Failloux – Potential vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in the Mediterranean region. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 2008, 8(6): 749-754, doi:10.1089/vbz.2008.0009

Schwermer, H., V. Chaignat, B. Thür, D. Hadorn, S. Schärrer, F. Schaffner & E. Breidenbach – Das Überwachungsprogramm der Blauzungenkrankheit in der Schweiz. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 2008, 150(3): 129-132

Straetemans, M., on behalf of the ECDC consultation group on vector-related risk for chikungunya virus transmission in Europe (Almeida, A.P., R. Bellini, D. Coulombier, E. Depoortere, R. Eritja, D. Fontenille, J. Giesecke, J. Lundström, A. Lenhart, J. Medlock, E. Merdic, L. Payne, A. Powers, R. Romi, A. Samanidou, F. Schaffner, E.J. Scholte, V. Versteirt) – Vector-related risk mapping of the introduction and establishment of Aedes albopictus in Europe. EuroSurveillance, 2008,
13(7). Available online:

Vazeille, M., C. Jeannin, E. Martin, F. Schaffner & A.-B. Failloux – Chikungunya: a risk for Mediterranean countries? Acta Tropica, 2008, 105: 200-202, doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2007.09.00

Schärrer, S., V. Chaignat, H. Schwermer, D. Hadorn, F. Schaffner & E. Breidenbach – Surveillance en fonction des risques de la fièvre catarrhale ovine (Bluetongue) en Suisse. Épidémiologie et santé animale, 2008, 53: 97-104

Armengaud, A., F. Legros, E. D’Ortenzio, I. Quatresous, H. Barre, S. Houze, P. Valayer, Y. Fanton & F. Schaffner – Survenue en Corse d’un cas de paludisme autochtone à Plasmodium vivax, France, août 2006. Bulletin Epidémiologique Hebdomadaire, 2007, 25-26: 231-233

=Armengaud, A., V. Cicchelero, I. Capek, P. del Giudice, K. Mantey, A. Mailles, J. Deniau, H. Zeller, H. Tolou, I. Schuffenecker, M. Grandadam, J.P. Durand, E. Cua, V. Vaillant, C. Gloaguen, M.C. Paty, F. Franke, G. Gourvellec, J. Languille, S. Zientara, J. Hars, F. Schaffner, C. Lagneau, G. L'Ambert, P. Gallian, P. de Micco & P. Malfait – Surveillance du virus West Nile en France dans les départements du pourtour méditerranéen, 2003-06. Bulletin Epidémiologique Hebdomadaire, 2007, 29-30: 264-267

Balenghien, T., M. Vazeille, P. Reiter, F. Schaffner, H. Zeller & D.J. Bicout – Evidence of laboratory vector competence of Culex modestus for West Nile virus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 2007, 23(2): 233–236

Delaunay, P., B. Mathieu, P. Marty, P. Fauran, & F. Schaffner – Historique de l'installation d’Aedes albopictus dans les Alpes-Maritimes (France) de 2002 à 2005. Médecine Tropicale, 2007, 67(3): 310-311

Ponçon, N., T. Balenghien, C. Toty, J.-B. Ferré, D. Thomas, A. Dervieux, G. L’Ambert, F. Schaffner, O. Bardin & D. Fontenille – Effects on local anthropogenic changes on potential malaria vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile virus vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2007, 13(12): 1810-1815

Ponçon, N., C. Toty, G. L'Ambert, G. Le Goff, C. Brengues, F. Schaffner & D. Fontenille – Population dynamics of pest mosquitoes and potential malaria and West Nile virus vectors in relation to climatic factors and human activities in the Camargue, France. Medical and veterinary Entomology, 2007, 21(8): 350-357

Ponçon, N., C. Toty, G. L'Ambert, G. Le Goff, C. Brengues, F. Schaffner & D. Fontenille – Biology and dynamics of potential malaria vectors in southern France. Malaria Journal, 2007, 6: 18 (21 February 2007), 9 pp. URL:

Tran, A., N. Gaidet, G. L’Ambert, T. Balenghien, G. Balança, V. Chevalier, V. Soti, C. Ivanes, E. Etter, F. Schaffner, T. Baldet & S. de la Rocque – The use of remote sensing for the ecological description of multi-host disease systems: a case study on West Nile virus in southern France. Veterinaria Italiana, 2007, 43(3): 687-697

Armengaud, A. , F. Legros, I. Quatresous, H. Barre, P. Valayer, Y. Fanton, E. D’Ortenzio & F. Schaffner – A case of autochthonous Plasmodium vivax malaria, Corsica, August 2006. Euro Surveillance, 2006, 11(11): E061116.3. URL:

Depoortere, E. & D. Coulombier, on behalf of the ECDC Chikungunya risk assessment group (Boutin, J.-P., S. Brooker, H. De Valk, S. Dieckmann, D. Fontenille, E. Gould, M. Nathan, M. Nilsson, F. Schaffner, F. von Sonnenburg, W. Takken) – Chikungunya risk assessment for Europe: recommendations for action. EuroSurveillance, 2006, 11(5): E060511.2. URL:

Mathieu, B., L. Bertrand, V. Peyrusse, F. Schaffner & M. Bertrand – Culicidae and water mites: parasitism under mediterranean climatic conditions. Acarologia, 2006, 47(1-2): 55-61

Mousson, L., C. Dauga, T. Garrigues, F. Schaffner, M. Vazeille & A.-B. Failloux – Phylogeography of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) based on mitochondrial DNA variations. Genetical Research, 2005, 86: 1-11

Fonseca, D.M., N. Keyghobadi, C.A. Malcolm, C. Mehmet, F. Schaffner, M. Mogi, R.C. Fleischer & R .C. Wilkerson – Emerging vectors in the Culex pipiens complex. Science, 2004, 303(5663): 1535-1538

Fonseca, D.M., N. Keyghobadi, C.A. Malcolm, F. Schaffner, M. Mogi, R.C. Fleischer & R.C. Wilkerson – Outbreak of West Nile Virus in North America, Science (Letter to the editor, response), 2004, 306(5701): 1473-1475

Schaffner, F., W. Van Bortel & M. Coosemans – First record of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) in Belgium. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 2004, 20(2): 201-203

Zeller, H., S. Zientara, J. Hars, J. Languille, A. Mailles, H. Tolou, M.-C. Paty, F. Schaffner, A. Armengaud, P. Gaillan, J.-F. Legras & P. Hendrikx – West Nile outbreak in horses in Southern France: September 2004. Eurosurveillance Weekly, 2004, 8(41): 07/10/2004. Available from:

Kampen, H., A. Sternberg, J. Proft, S. Bastian, F. Schaffner, W.A. Maier & H.M. Seitz – Polymerase chain reaction-based differentiation of the mosquito sibling species Anopheles claviger s.s. and Anopheles petragnani (Diptera: Culicidae). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2003, 69(2): 195-199

Mailles, A., P. Dellamonica, H. Zeller, J.-P. Durand, S. Zientara, R. Goffette, C. Gloagen, A. Armengaud, F. Schaffner, J. Hars, E. Chodorge & J. Barbat – Human and equine West Nile virus infections in France, August – September 2003. Eurosurveillance Weekly, 2003, 7(43): 23/10/2003

Schaffner, F. – Mosquitoes in used tyres in Europe: species list and larval key. European Mosquito Bulletin, 2003, 16: 7-12

Schaffner, F., S. Chouin & J. Guilloteau – First record of Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) in metropolitan France. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 2003, 19(1): 1-5

Schaffner, F., M. Marquine, N. Pasteur & M. Raymond – Genetic differentiation of Anopheles claviger s.s. in Europe. Journal of Medical Entomology, 2003, 40(6): 865-875

Rey, D., L. Despres, F. Schaffner & J.-C. Meyran – Mapping of Resistance to Vegetable Polyphenols among Aedes taxa (Diptera, Culicidae) on a Molecular Phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2001, 19(2): 317-325

Schaffner, F., B. Boulétreau, B. Guillet, J. Guilloteau & S. Karch – Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) established in metropolitan France. European Mosquito Bulletin, 2001, 9: 1-3

Aranda, C., R. Eritja, F. Schaffner & R. Escosa – Culex (Culex) torrentium Martini (Diptera: Culicidae) a new species from Spain. European Mosquito Bulletin, 2000, 8: 7-9

Schaffner, F. & S. Karch – Première observation d'Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) en France métropolitaine. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris, Sciences de la vie / Life Sciences, 2000, 323(4): 373-375

Schaffner, F., M. Raymond & N. Pasteur – Genetic differentiation of Anopheles claviger s.s. in France and neighbouring countries. Medical and veterinary Entomology, 2000, 14: 264-271

Schaffner, F. – Biodiversité et dynamique des moustiques de France (Diptera, Culicidae). Annales de la Société entomologique de France, n° spécial Actes de la IVe C.I.F.E. de Saint-Malo, juillet 1998, 1999, 35: 319-327

Schaffner, F. – A revised checklist of the French Culicidae. European Mosquito Bulletin, 1998, 2: 1-9

Schaffner, F. & F. Pfirsch – Un nouveau moustique pour la faune française : Aedes (Ae.) esoensis rossicus Dolbeskin, Gorickaja & Mitrofanova, 1930 (Diptera, Culicidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 1995, 100(4): 325-330

Schaffner, F. – Nouvelle clé de détermination pour les imagos femelles du genre Aedes du Nord-Est de la France. Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 1993, 98(1): 29-34


Schaffner, F. – Les méthodes sanitaires de contrôle des vecteurs pour la prévention de la transmission d’arbovirus par les moustiques en France métropolitaine. Épidémiologie et santé animale, 2008, 54: 29-40

Schaffner, F. – Insekten als Krankheitsüberträger, neue Erreger und der Klimawandel/Insectes vecteurs, nouveaux pathogènes et changements climatiques/Insect as transmitters of disease, new pathogens and climate change. Schweizer Zoonosenbericht/Rapport suisse sur les zoonoses/Swiss zoonoses report 2007, 2008, 4-10


Schaffner, F. – The mosquitoes and the community. Local authorities, health and environment briefing pamphlets series, 39. Copenhagen, WHO regional Office for Europe, 2003, 28 pp.

Schaffner, F. – Systématique du complexe Claviger (Diptera, Culicidae, Anopheles) : morphologie, génétique & biologie. Montpellier, EID méditerranée, 2002, 268 pp. (thèse doctorat, Univ. L. Pasteur, Strasbourg I)

Schaffner, F. – Les Moustiques de Haute-Alsace. I- Systématique. Colmar, Conseil Général du Haut-Rhin, 1992, 295 pp. (thèse DRS : Les Culicides de Haute-Alsace - Systématique et Taxonomie. Strasbourg, Univ. L. Pasteur, Strasbourg I)

Schaffner, F. – Regard sur la Santé de la Forêt Vosgienne. Mémoire B.E. Accompagnateur Moyenne Montagne, 1985, 145 pp. + XLII

Book chapters:

Lecollinet, S., J. Hars, A. Armengaud, I. Capek, A. Leblond, F. Schaffner & S. Zientara – Chapitre 8 : Réseaux de surveillance. In Que savons-nous du virus de West Nile en France ? Ed. QUAE, Paris, in press

Schaffner, F. & J.-C. Delécolle – Chapter 12: Vectors of arboviruses. In Infectious and Parasitic Diseases of Livestock (Lefèvre, P.-C., J. Blancou, R. Chermette & G. Uilenberg Eds.), Paris, Ed. Tec & Doc, Ed. Med. int., 2010, Vol 1: 781 pp. (137-153)

Kampen, H. & F. Schaffner – Chapter 13. Mosquitoes. In Public Health Significance of Urban Pests (Bonnefoy, X., H. Kampen & K. Sweeney Eds.), WHO Regional Office for Europe, Geneva, 2008, xiv + 570 pages (347-386)

Scholte, E.-J. & Schaffner, F. – Chapter 14. Waiting for the tiger: establishment and spread of the Aedes albopictus mosquito in Europe. In Emerging pests and vector-borne diseases in Europe (Takken, W. & B.G.J. Knols Eds.), book series Ecology and control of vector-borne diseases, vol 1, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2007, 499 pp. (241-260)

Delécolle, J.-C. & F. Schaffner – Chap. 10 : Vecteurs des arboviroses. In Principales maladies infectieuses et parasitaires du bétail, Europe et régions chaudes. (Lefèvre P.-C., Blancou J. & Chermette R Eds.), Paris, Ed. Tec & Doc, Ed. Med. int., vol 1, 2003, 764 pp. (123-138) CD-Rom

Schaffner, F., G. Angel, B. Geoffroy, J.-P. Hervy, A. Rhaiem & J. Brunhes – The Mosquitoes of Europe / Les moustiques d'Europe. Programme d’identification et d’enseignement. Montpellier, France, IRD Éditions & EID Méditerranée, 2001
Other relevant publications Interviewed and cited in Enserink, M., 2010 – Yellow Fever Mosquito Shows Up in Northern Europe, Science, 329 (5993): 736, 13 August 2010, DOI: 10.1126/science.329.5993.736

Van Bortel, W., F. Schaffner & G. Hendrickx – Call for collaboration: Vbornet database and maps of vector distribution and surveillance in Europe. ECDC, VBORNET Newsletter, 2010, 2: 2-5

Schaffner, F. & W. Van Bortel – Current status of invasive mosquitoes in Europe. ECDC, VBORNET Newsletter, 2010, 2: 6-8

Medlock, J., F. Schaffner & D. Fontenille – Invasive mosquitoes in the European associate continental and overseas territories. ECDC, VBORNET Newsletter, 2010, 2: 15-18

Schaffner, F. – A selection of web sites dealing with invasive species. ECDC, VBORNET Newsletter, 2010, 2: 22-23 Interviewed and cited in Enserink, M., 2008 – A mosquito goes global, Science, 320 (5878): 864-866, 16 May 2008, DOI: 10.1126/science.320.5878.864

Delaunay, P., M. Raselli, F. Schaffner – Actualités sur les moustiques et le moustique tigre Aedes albopictus dans les Alpes-Maritimes. Riviéra Scientifique, 2006, 90: 35-58

Malard, S., F. Schaffner & C. Le Bâcle – La dengue : un problème de santé publique lié à des activités professionnelles. Lutte en entreprise contre l’introduction d’un vecteur. Documents pour le Médecin du Travail, 2003, N°94, 151-167

Jacquemin, G., H. Callot, J.-C. Delécolle, R. Leborgne, A. Pasquet, F. Schaffner, J.-C. Streito & G. Vaucel – Les marais salés de Lorraine. Premier bilan entomologique (colloque de Besançon, 1999). Bulletin de liaison de la Société Lorraine d’Entomologie, 2001, 8: 6-11

Delaunay, P., F. Schaffner & M. Babinot – Un nouveau moustique en France Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) (Diptera : Culicidae) On le cherchait dans les Alpes Maritimes... on l’a trouvé dans l’Orne. Riviéra Scientifique, 2000, 84: 17-18

Schaffner, F. & S. Karch – [Aedes albopictus discovered in France.] To δhitma [La Piqûre], 1999, 9: 10-11 [en Grec.]

Schaffner, F. & S. Karch – Aedes albopictus discovered in France. Vector Ecology Newsletter, 1999, 30(4): 11

Schaffner, F. – Les moustiques de la Petite Camargue. Inventaire faunistique. (1993). Annales Scientifiques 1991-95. Réserve Naturelle de la Petite Camargue Alsacienne, 1995, 7-9

Schaffner, F. – Les moustiques de Haute-Alsace : révision de la liste faunistique. Bulletin de la Société entomologique de Mulhouse, 1992, 48: 63-71

Schaffner, F. – Le paludisme en Haute-Alsace. Bulletin de l’Association Philomatique d’Alsace et de Lorraine, 1991, 27: 47-56


Delaunay, P., C. Jeannin, F. Schaffner & P. Marty – Actualités 2008 sur la présence du moustique tigre Aedes albopictus en France métropolitaine. Archives de Pédiatrie, 2009, 16, supp. 2: S66-S71

Schaffner, F. – Recherches en entomologie vétérinaire et médicale à l’Institut de parasitologie de Zürich. Deux sujets d’actualité: Phortica spp. et Ver oriental, Culicoides spp. et Langue bleue du mouton. Wissenschaftliche Sitzung der SEG, Mitteilungen des Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 2008, 81(1-2): 120

Delaunay, P., G. Duvallet, P. Fauran, S. De La Rocque, F. Schaffner, M. Strobel & F. Rodhain – Implantation des arboviroses tropicales: incidences sur la santé humaine et animale. Environnement Risques & Santé, 2002, 1 (Numéro Spécial 1): S64-S65

Schaffner, F. – Surveillance and control of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus in metropolitan France. Proceedings 1st Balkan conference Malaria & Mosquito Control, Serres-Greece, 2001, 107-109

Petrić, D., A. Cupina, D. Marinović, M. Zgomba, N. Becker, A. Kaiser, F. Schaffner, M. Carrieri, R. Veronesi & R. Bellini – Improvement of adult mosquito monitoring techniques. Dry ice baited trap comparison and standardization. Proceedings of the 13th European SOVE Meeting, Ankara, Turkey, DTP, 2000, 275 p. (62)

Schaffner, F. – Program for the surveillance and control of Aedes albopictus in metropolitan France. In Eds Çağlar, S.S., Alten, B. & Özer, N. (Eds) Proceedings of the 13th European SOVE Meeting, Ankara, Turkey, DTP, 2000, 275 p. (78)

Schaffner, F. 1998 – Computer aided identification of European mosquitoes. Acta Parasitológica Portuguesa. Lisboa, 5(1): 26

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